Volume 5 , Issue 2 , April 2016 , Pages: 37 - 44
The Effect of Aromatherapy Massage Using Lavender Oil on the Level of Pain and Anxiety During Labour Among Primigravida Women
Sahar Mansour Lamadah, Obstetric and Gynaecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Ibtesam Nomani, Obstetric and Gynaecological Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al- Mukarramah, KSA
Received: Feb. 7, 2016;       Accepted: Feb. 18, 2016;       Published: Mar. 2, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajns.20160502.11        View        Downloads  
Background: Labour pain is considered as one of the most intense forms of pain. Psychological challenge such as anxiety can contribute towards women’s perception of pain and may also affect their labor and birth experience. There are modern many non-invasive methods to relieve pain during childbirth. Among these methods is aromatherapy which is the most popular complementary therapy during child birth. Therefore this study aimed to assess the effect of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil on the level of pain and anxiety during labor among primigravida women. Setting: the study was conducted in the labour department at El-Shatby Maternity University Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. A purposive sample of 60 pregnant women participated in the study. There were randomly assigned to two groups: The first group (n= 30) received aromatherapy back massage with 2 drops of lavender oil dissolved in 50cc almond oil and the second group (n = 30) received only back massage. Four tools were used to collect the necessary data: An Interviewing Assessment Sheet, Partograph, Visual analogue pain intensity scale (VAS) and Spielberger state-trait anxiety questionnaire. Results of the current study illustrated that the mean pain score before intervention was (7.0) for aromatherapy group and (8.1) for control group. Then after intervention, the mean pain score decreased to 6.4 during active phase for aromatherapy group compared to 8.9 for control group. Also, the mean pain score decreased to 7.7 during transitional phase for aromatherapy group compared to 9.6 for control group. There is a statistical significant difference between the two groups after the intervention. Moreover, the mean anxiety score before intervention was (55.47 and 50.40) respectively among the aromatherapy and control group. However, it decreased during the active and transitional phase to (38.40, 36.63) respectively among aromatherapy group compared to (45.13, 44.07) respectively among control group. The difference was statistically significant. The present study concluded that aromatherapy massage with lavender oil can reduce pain and anxiety during labour. Also, it is an effective way to decrease labor duration. It was recommended that lavender aromatherapy massage can be offered to women in labour for pain relief.
Aromatherapy Massage, Lavender Oil, Labour Pain, Anxiety
To cite this article
Sahar Mansour Lamadah, Ibtesam Nomani, The Effect of Aromatherapy Massage Using Lavender Oil on the Level of Pain and Anxiety During Labour Among Primigravida Women, American Journal of Nursing Science. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2016, pp. 37-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20160502.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
[ 1 ]
Mortazavi S H, Khaki S, Moradi R et al. Effects of massage therapy and presence of attendant on pain, anxiety and satisfaction during labor. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012. DOI 10.1007/s00404-012-2227-4.
[ 2 ]
Joseph R M & Fernandes P. Effectiveness of jasmine oil massage on reduction of labor pain among primigravida mothers. Nitte University Journal of Health Science 2013; 3(4): 104-107.
[ 3 ]
MacKenzie, I. Z., Xu, J., Cusick, C., Midwinter-Morten, H., Meacher, H., Mollison, J. and Brock, M. Acupuncture for Pain Relief during Induced Labour in Nulliparae: A Randomized Controlled Study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2011; 118, 440-447.
[ 4 ]
Manizheh P, Leila P. Perceived environmental stressors and pain perception during labor among primiparous and multiparous women. J Reprod Infertil. 2009; 10: 217-223.
[ 5 ]
Beigi NMA, Broumandfar K, Bahadoran P, Abedi HA; Women's experience of pain during childbirth. IJNMR, 2010; 15(2): 77-82.
[ 6 ]
Simkin P, Hull K; Pain, suffering, and trauma in labor and prevention of subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Perinatal Education, 2011; 20(3): 166–176.
[ 7 ]
Lee SL, Liu CY, Lu YY, Gau ML; Efficacy of Warm Showers on Labor Pain and Birth Experiences during the First Labor Stage. JOGNN 2013; 42(1): 19-28.
[ 8 ]
Spice K, Jones SL, Hadjistavropoulos HD, Kowalyk K, Stewart SH. Prenatal fear of childbirth and anxiety sensitivity. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2009; 30(3): 168–74.
[ 9 ]
Holm L, Fitzmaurice L. Emergency department waiting room stress: can music or aromatherapy improve anxiety scores? Pediatr Emerg Care 2008; 24(12): 836–8.
[ 10 ]
Alipour Z, Lamyian M, Hajizadeh E. Anxiety and fear of childbirth as predictors of postnatal depression in nulliparous women. Women Birth. 2012; 25(3): e37–43.
[ 11 ]
Wei-hong Li, Hong-yu Zhang, Yi Ling, Song Jin. Effect of prolonged second stage of labor on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 2011; 409-411.
[ 12 ]
Blix E, Kumle M, Oian P. What is the duration of normal labour? Laegeforen 2008; 128: 686–9.
[ 13 ]
Jones L, Othman M, Dowswell T, et al. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
[ 14 ]
Cochrane AR. "Perceptions of Labor and Delivery Clinicians on Non-Pharmacological Methods for Pain Relief During Labor" (2015). Senior Honors Theses. Paper 94.
[ 15 ]
Maddocks-Jennings W. & Wilkinson J. M. Aromatherapy practice in nursing: Literature review. journal of advanced nursing 2004; 48(1): 93–103
[ 16 ]
Lee MK, Chang SB, Kang DH. Effects of SP6 acupressure on labor pain and length of delivery time in women during labor. J. Altern. Complement. Med 2004; 10(6): 959-965.
[ 17 ]
Kaviani M, Maghbool S, Azima S, Hosein M. Comparison of the effect of aromatherapy with Jasminum officinale and Salvia officinale on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014; 19(6): 666–672.
[ 18 ]
Mohamed M, Hadayat A, Ragaa A, Sally A. Effectiveness of Aromatherapy with Lavender Oil in Relieving Post Caesarean Incision Pain: Journal of Surgery, 2015; 3(2-1): 8-13.
[ 19 ]
Mohammad N, Mohammad H, Abbas E, Anooshirvan K, Mohammad B. Effect of lavender aromatherapy on hemodynamic indices among patients with acute coronary syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Iran J Crit Care Nurs. 2015; 7(4): 201-208.
[ 20 ]
Tracey; What is aromatherapy? Health resources, 2011; 14(2): 23-25.
[ 21 ]
Janula R, Mahipal S. Effectiveness of Aromatherapy and Biofeedback in Promotion of Labour Outcome during Childbirth among Primigravidas. Health Science Journal 2015; (9)1.
[ 22 ]
Tournaire M and Theau-Yonneau A. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Pain Relief During Labor. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007; 4(4): 409–417.
[ 23 ]
Hajiamini Z, Masoud S N, Ebadi A, Mahboubh A. and Matin, A. Comparing the Effects of Ice Massage and Acupressure on Labor Pain Reduction. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 2012; 18, 169-172.
[ 24 ]
Dolatian M, Hasanpour A, Montazeri SH, Heshmat R, Alavi Majd H. The Effect of Reflexology on Pain Intensity and Duration of Labor on Primiparas; Iran Red Crescent Med J 2011; 13(7): 475–479.
[ 25 ]
Buckle J. The role of aromatherapy in nursing care. Nurs Clin North Am. 2001; 36(1): 57-72.
[ 26 ]
Raju J, Singh M. Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Reducing Labour Pain and Duration of Labour among Primigravidas: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research 2014; 4(2).
[ 27 ]
World Health Organization. World health organization in management of labor. Lancet 1994; (343): 1399-1404.
[ 28 ]
Hawker GA, Mian S, Kendzerska T, French M. Measures of adult pain: Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS), and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Arthritis Care Res. 2011; 63(11): 240-252.
[ 29 ]
Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. Test manual for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1970.
[ 30 ]
Quek KF, Low WY, Razack AH, Loh CS, Chua CB. Reliability and validity of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) among urological patients: a Malaysian study. Med J Malaysia.2004; 59(2): 258–67.
[ 31 ]
Gallo R B, Santana L S, Ferreira C H et al. Massage reduced severity of pain during labour: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 2013; 59.
[ 32 ]
Liu Y H, Chang M Y, Chen C H. Effects of music therapy on labour pain and anxiety in Taiwanese first-time mothers. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2010; 19 (7-8): 1065-72.
[ 33 ]
Zahra A, Leila M. Lavender aromatherapy massages in reducing labor pain and duration of labor: A randomized controlled trial. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2013; 7(8): 426-430.
[ 34 ]
Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, Lloyd AJ, Barnetson L; The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice. an observational study. Complement The Nurse Midwifery 2000; 6(1): 33-34.
[ 35 ]
Chang MY, Wang SY, Chen CH. Effects of massage on pain and anxiety during labour: a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan J. Adv. Nurs. 2002; 38(1): 68-73.
[ 36 ]
Smith C, Collins C, Crowther C. Aromatherapy for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database Syst 2011. Rev. p. 7.
[ 37 ]
Namazi M, Aromatherapy With Citrus Aurantium Oil and Anxiety During the First Stage of Labor, Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2014 Jun; 16(6): e18371.
[ 38 ]
Hee rho K, Hee han S, Soon kim K & Soo lee M. Effects of aromatherapy massage on anxiety and self-esteem in korean elderly women: a pilot study. international journal of neuroscience 2009; 116 (12): 1447-1455.
[ 39 ]
Imanishi J, Kuriyama H, Shigemori I, Watanabe S, Aihara Y, Kita M et al. Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy Massage in Patients with Breast Cancer. Complement Alternat Med. 2009; 6(1): 123-128.
[ 40 ]
Bastard J, Tiran D. Aromatherapy and massage for antenatal anxiety: its effect on the fetus. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2006; 12(1): 48-54.
[ 41 ]
Osaka I, Kurihara Y, Tanaka K, Nishizaki H, Aoki S, Adachi I. Endocrinological evaluations of brief hand massages in palliative care. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2009; 15(9): 981–985. [PubMed].
[ 42 ]
Bastered J, Reprint of: Aromatherapy and massage for antenatal anxiety: Its effect on the fetus, complementary therapies in clinical practice 2009, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 230–233.
[ 43 ]
Mousley S, Audit of an aromatherapy service in a maternity unit, Goerge Eliot hospital, 2005; 11, 205-210.
Browse journals by subject